Holden Furber; The English Utilitarians and India. By Eric Stokes. (New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xvi, $), The American Historical Rev. OTHER REVIEWS. Jacobinism. He has also demonstrated the permanent damage to its prestige suffered by the upper house in when it became a. utilitarianism on Indian education: K. A. Ballhatchet suggests that it was exerted in India, not London, while Eric Stokes doubts that it was a significant factor even .
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Grant himself and his sons leading the fight in 1 8 1 2 for the defence of the Company’s privileges. The principal task was now to devise an effective and economical adminis- tration for the vast areas suddenly annexed to the Company’s territories. Here Bentham again had a undia of firm principles. That path lay, firstly, in the preservation of the soul in its state of grace through prayer and work, and secondly, in the mission to evangelize.
Although there was, of course, a profound gulf between their actual practis- ing ideas, the assumptions of the Evangelical theology and the Utilitarian philosophy were remarkably similar. Leslie Stephen – – New York: Against the abstract goodness of proposed measures they had no argument; but with the faith of Burke, they countered the new spirit by an appeal to history and ex- perience, and by a counsel of moderation and patience.
Yet if the orbit of its activity had been circumscribed in this manner, the Evangelical movement would have had com- paratively little political importance.
At present the British were in every way different from their Jndia subjects, in language, manners, customs, stokfs, religion. The governing forces of history were generated by the constant tendency of intelligence and property to increase and diifuse them- selves in an ever widening circle; and India could not be insulated from this action.
As the un- qualified champion of reform, the Westminster Review had to maintain an awkward silence with regard to the East India Company; a point which Hazlitt was quick to seize upon. Don’t have an account? It was to the lack of an efficient system of law, founded on the science of jurisprudence, that Bentham in his early years ex- plained the source of misgovernmentand poverty.
The divergence between James Mill and the main stream of English Liberal opinion requires emphasis. This book is not yet featured on Listopia.
The English Utilitarians And India by Eric Stokes
Character was a product of environment, but of moral rather than physical environment. Both agreed in many general aims. Political authority, in the form of the subjection of one man to the will of another, was reduced to its lowest point; and the happy marriage of liberty and security pro- vided the most favourable conditions for the production of wealth.
Poverty bred crime, cruelty, licentiousness, apathy, listlessness, servility, superstition, and an entire loss of independence and self- reliance. Wilberforce voiced the full-blooded doctrine of assimilation: A transformation in the purpose of political dominion was the main result. The natives will not rise against us, we shall stoop to raise them; there will be no reaction, because there will be no pressure; the national activity will be fully and harmlessly employed in acquiring and englis European knowledge, and in naturalising European institutions.
As a later spokesman expressed it: Bengal Hurkaru, ii Sept.
Politics to them were experiential in nature, ane near-sighted, and essentially limited in their achievement. Facilities of official advancement can little affect the bulk of the people under any Government, and perhaps least under a good Government.
The first question with which they were confronted was the form of revenue collection, whether payment should be effected through intermediaries, such as the Bengal zemtndarSy or directly from the individual peasant. Neha Kalita is currently reading it Dec 27, The improvement in moral tone was not a merely local phenomenon. The threat that English law would displace the indigenous Hindu and Muslim system aroused in Hastings the first conscious reaction in favour of preserving Indian society and its institutions against the anglicizing danger.
It was the same with other contemporary movements of ideas. If the controlling authority also engaged in executive functions, there would in practice be no check.
There must be consequently among the latter a feeling that their interests were opposed. For reasons of speed, economy, and simplicity, there would be only one judge, and only one appeal from his decision to a single metropolitan court of appeal. What led James Mill to undertake the labour of his History of British India is uncertain, but the work resulted in the employment of him and his son after in the East India House and firmly fixed Utilitarian influence in Indian affairs. It IS true that by 1 8 1 c the Bengal system had established itself as the orthodox pattern of British rule, and utiilitarians already loaded with the dead weight of a tradition.
Want to Read Currently Reading Read. This expansion stoke its own logic, but again in a sense it owed its impulse and sanction to the martial epoch through which Britain passed in the Napoleonic Wars.
That impulse for completion, thr made every great Romantic poet a politician, worked in him to transform the ericc educated soldier into a finished statesman and writer. The sword was to be exchanged for the pen, and the soldier-diplomat to give way before the administrator and judge.
The fierce, downright exterior, the instinct for his own caste and race, the consciousness of religion, the sense of a moral code and a constant dwelling under an unwritten law of duty, the eager and crude intellectual appetite — all the images the imagination must summon to picture the English- man of the early Victorian age in India, are really drawn from English social history.
The pro- cess of appeal would consist simply in a view of the recorded proceedings of the original court. We have already seen, in reviewing the Hindu form of government, that despotism, in one utilitaeians its simplest and least artificial shapes, was established in Hindustan, and confirmed by laws of Divine authority.
The English Utilitarians and India
To the south, a continuation of the- same valley, running as far as the eye can reach, into Mysore. From the glimpses which the records of their private thoughts permit, they possessed what might be termed the Romantic temperament; combining a strong introspective bent, a sensibility for natural beauty and for historical associations, with an imaginative urge for release in action and adventure.
They were aware that the new age of peace, retrenchment, and reform, would bring forth a generation of administrators, purposeful and utioitarians, but with ideas alien to their own. Ondia by Eric Stokes. Despotism was the low-water mark in the scale of political evil. The healing principle which should close the dangerous gulf was that of assimilation. The vices and defects of the mass of mankind arose not froni a lack of schooling but from poverty. Trained by us to happiness and independence, and endowed with our learning and political institutions, India will remain the proudest monument of British benevolence; and we shall long continue to reap, in the affec- tionate attachment of the people, and m a great commercial intercourse with their splendid country, the fruit of that liberal and enlightened policy which suggested to us this line of conduct.
They have already made the science of political economy — a science of vast importance to the welfare of nations — an object of disgust to the majority of the community.